Trichology is the science that studies the hair and the scalp, in charge of diagnosing and treating the alterations that occur in it.

It also identifies if there are problems with oily dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or inflammation of the hair follicles that may be causing the loss of density or hair loss.

Its purpose is to restore capillary health and aesthetics, for which it carries out a previous diagnosis that consists of the following steps:

  • Clinical hair examination.
  • Dermatoscope examination.
  • Examination of a hair sample.
  • Examination with phototrichogram.



Hair loss, also called alopecia, can occur anywhere on the body. If it occurs on the scalp, it is called baldness. It is a disease that affects the hair follicles (those tiny cavities through which hair grows).

Although hair loss is common, excessive hair loss could be a reflection or symptom of an underlying disease. Among the leading causes of alopecia are:

  • Genetic predisposition.
  • Hormonal conditions.
  • Medicines.
  • Skin infections
  • Trauma
  • Nutritional deficiencies.


Dandruff, also known as pityriasis, is the peeling of the dermis of the scalp. It appears when there is an excess of dead cells, which does not allow the process of cell renewal due to their accumulation.

Dandruff produces a bothersome situation from the aesthetic and well-being point of view for those who suffer from it since a sensation of itching usually accompanies it.

The most common types of dandruff are:

  • Dry dandruff or pityriasis simplex: Fine, dry, whitish-colored scales are shown, detached from the skin, and spread over the rest of the scalp.
  • Dandruff or pityriasis fat: It is located in the areas where there is more sebum, for example, on the forehead or neck. Pityriasis is more extensive, with a yellowish color, thanks to the fat. With this type of dandruff, patches of dead skin and redness can appear.

Greasy Hair

La seborrea es una alteración de la función de las glándulas sebáceas en la que aumenta la secreción de grasa que producen. Seborrhea is an alteration in the function of the sebaceous glands in which the secretion of fat they produce increases. In addition to being inconvenient for those who suffer from it, seborrhea can lead to other problems such as infections and fungi.

Some common causes of oily hair are:

  • Seborrheic Dermatitis: A skin condition that causes scaly areas and red skin, particularly on the scalp.
  • Poor Diet: Diets rich in fatty foods directly affect the production of sebum.
  • Hormonal Imbalance: Puberty and stress, as well as pregnancy and menstrual periods in the case of women, can trigger excessive production of sebum.
  • Use Of Inappropriate Products: Shampoos, lotions, creams, and ointments with high concentrations of oil and other components that leave hair oily.

Dry Hair

Dry hair denotes a lack of hydration of the scalp, which causes its protective layer to deteriorate. This condition makes it easier for harmful substances to penetrate the skin, leading to micro-inflammation, itching, and redness on the scalp.

Here are some of the leading causes of dry hair:

  • Aging: Thinner and more brittle hair.
  • Malnutrition: Changes in the shape of the hair due to a lack of vitamins, minerals, and proteins.
  • Hormonal Insufficiency Problems: Conditions such as an underactive thyroid can leave hair weak, dry, and brittle, with a tendency to fray and break.
  • Excessive cleaning. Washing too much, or using harsh soaps or alcohol products.

Damaged Hair

Split or angled ends, dry hair, lack of shine, and roughness result from accumulated damage over time, mainly due to external factors.

When the hair cuticle is damaged, it leaves the inner layer and its cells exposed, resulting in highly brittle strands.

There are many reasons why hair can be severely damaged. However, the most common are:

  • Chemical Damage: Dyes, highlights, highlights or reflections, and perms, among many others, dry out the hair and modify its natural structure, leaving it brittle.
  • Excessive Heat Damage: Prolonged sun exposure or excessive use of irons and dryers.
  • Damage From Other External Factors: Prolonged contact of the hair with sea salt, chlorine from swimming pools, and pollution can also affect hair health.


Dra. Daniela Gutiérrez


Dermatologist and specialist in Dermatological Surgery, with more than 11 years of experience. Since 2009 she has taught different classes at institutions such as the UNAM School of Medicine and the Autonomous University of Baja California. Dr. Daniela’s passion and experience led her to create the Mexican Trichology Association in 2016.

She has collaborated with different associations and clinics in Dermatology and Topographic Anatomy. Furthermore, she has served as a high-grade professor specializing in Oncological Surgery.